Document Type : Original Article
1 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
2 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
3 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Objective- Comparative evaluation of standing and lateral recumbent restraint positions for rumenotomy based on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) concentrations of Kano-Brown goats (KBGs).
Design- Experimental study
Animals- Eighteen KBGs of both sexes diagnosed of rumen foreign body impaction (RFBI), were allocated to groups A, B and D. Six other KBGs free of RFBI were assigned to group C as control.
Procedures- Groups A and B were restrained in lateral recumbency position while group D in a fabricated mobile small ruminant surgical chute (MSRSC) in a standing fashion. Serum samples stored at -20 ℃ until ELISA, were obtained pre-rumenotomy (Pre) and post-rumenotomy, at 0, 5, 24, 48 and 72 hours, and subsequently at weeks 1, 2, and 3. Group C had no surgery while A, B and D had rumen skin clamp fixation, stay suture rumenotomy and mobile small ruminant surgical chute rumenotomy, respectively.
Results- The post-rumenotomy mean concentrations of TGF-β for groups A, B and D at 0 hour (81.97 ± 24.12, 71.26 ± 10.28 and 58.51 ± 6.44 ng/L, respectively) were higher than the mean pre-rumenotomy values (38.34 ± 3.66, 41.31 ± 4.90 and 44.91 ±4.10 ng/L, respectively) but were not significantly different (P > 0.05). As the mean TGF-β concentration in the males of the different experimental groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), the females of group B had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mean concentrations than those of group D and C females at 48 hours post-rumenotomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance- Lateral recumbency restraint position rumenotomy was associated with more severe post-surgical stress than standing restraint based on role switching of the TGF-β in this study. This suggests comparative advantage of standing recumbency restraint rumenotomy over the conventional lateral recumbency restraints position in goats.
- Annatte AI. Farm animals. National agricultural extension and research liaison services ABU, Zaria, Naerls Press, 2000; 1-32.
- Hendrickson DA, Baird ANN. Turner and Mcilwraith’s techniques in large animal surgery. 4th ed. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
- Niehaus AJ. Rumenotomy. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 2008; 24: 341-347.
- Ames NK. Rumenotomy, Fistulation, Cannulation, and Pericardiotomy in Cattle. In: Noordsy’s food animal surgery. 5th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., USA, 2014; 105-117.
- Geehan AM, Amel OB, Shnain H. Comparative study of two rumenotomy techniques in goats. Surgery Journal, 2006; 1: 9-13.
- Dehghani SN, Ghadrdani AM. Bovine rumenotomy: comparison of four surgical techniques. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1995; 36: 693-697.
- Burton D, Grainne N, George H. Endocrine and metabolic response to surgery. Continuing Education in Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain, 2004; 4: 144-147.
- Lisowska B. The stress response and its functional implications in the immune response after surgery in patients with chronic inflammation undergoing arthroplasty. Recent Advances in Arthroplasty, 2012.
- Hanson PG, Peter G, Hanson MD. The Joy of Stress. Stress for success. Pan MacMillan, London, UK, 1986.
- Manorama S. Stress response and anaesthesia. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 2003; 47: 427-434.
- Hellyer PW, Robertson SA, Fails AD. Pain and Its Management. In: Lumb and Jones’ veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JCA. Grimm K, eds. 4th ed. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Iowa, USA, 2007; 31-52.
- Alberto B, Enrico G, Alessandro G, Enrica B, Anna F, Roberto DA, Gioachino C. Analgesia and endocrine surgical stress: effect of two analgesia protocols on cortisol and prolactin levels during abdominal aortic aneurysm endovascular repair. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 2011; 32: 526-529.
- Opal SM, DePalo VA. Anti-inflammatory cytokines. Chest, 2000; 117: 1162–1172.
- Cavaillon J-M. Pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines: myth or reality. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2001; 47: 1-8.
- Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1, interleukin-1 receptors and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. International Review in Immunology, 1998; 16: 457–499.
- Do Cke WD, Randow F, Syrbe U. Monocyte deactivation in septic patients: restoration by interferon gamma treatment. Nature Medicine, 1997; 3: 678–681.
- Litterio JJ, Roberts AB. TGF-b: A critical modulator of immune cell function. Journal of Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 1997; 84: 244–250.
- Norgaard P, Hougaard S, Spang-Thomsen M. Transforming growth factor b and cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 1995; 21: 367–403.
- Kingsley DM. The TGF-b superfamily: New members, new receptors and new genetic tests of function in different organisms. Genes Development, 1994; 8: 133–146.
- Mahdavian DB, van der Veer WM, van Egmond M, Niessen FB, Beelen RH. Macrophages in skin injury and repair. Immunobiology, 2011; 216: 753–762.
- Dhama K, Mahendran M, Chauhan RS, Tomar S. Cytokines: Their functional roles and prospective applications in veterinary practice: A review. Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology, 2008; 10: 79-89.
- Reikeras O, Borgen P, Reseland JE, Lyngstadaas SP. Changes in serum cytokines in response to musculoskeletal surgical trauma. BMC Research, 2014; 7: 1-5.
- Schneemilch CE, Bank U. Release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during different anaesthesia procedures. Anaesthesiol Reanim, 2001; 26: 4-10.
- Serini G, Gabbiana G. Modulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in fibroblasts by transforming growth factor-beta isoforms: An in vivo and in vitro study. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 1996; 4: 278–287.
- Lisowska B. The stress response and its functional implications in the immune response after surgery in patients with chronic inflammation undergoing arthroplasty. Recent Advances in Arthroplasty, 2012; 1-34.
- Slatter D. Wound Repair and Specific Tissue Injury Response. In: Text book of small animal surgery, Holsgood G, ed. 3rd ed. Saunders, Elsevier, USA, 2003.
- Asadikaram G, Asiabanha M, Sayadi A, Jafarzadeh A, Hassanshahi G. Impact of opium on the serum levels of tgf-β in diabetic, addicted and addicted-diabetic rats. Iranian Journal of Immunology, 2010; 7: 186-192.
- Friedman E, Gold LI, Klimstra D, Zeng ZS, Winawer S, Cohen A. High levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 correlate with disease progression in human colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biormarker and Prevention, 1995; 4: 549-554.
- Yokoyama Y, Schwacha MG, Samy TSA, Bland KI, Chaudry IH. Gender dimorphism in immune responses following trauma and hemorrhage. Immunologic Research Volume, 2002; 26: 63-76.
- Pakyari M, Farrokhi A, Maharlooei MK, Ghahary A. critical role of transforming growth factor beta in different phases of wound healing. Advances in Wound Care, 2012; 2: 215-224.
- Behm B, Babilas P, Landthaler M, Schreml S. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in wound healing. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2012; 26: 1-9.