Testicular torsion and detorsion are important clinical problems for infertility in men. In fact, torsion of the spermatic cord is an emergency that results from the rotation of the testis and epididymis around the axis of the spermatic cord. Male factor infertility accounts for up to half of all cases of infertility and affects one man in 20 in the general population. Using a rat testis model, effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles (NCER) were studied on ischemia-reperfusion injury. Eighteen healthy male Wistar rats were used. The animals were subjected to three experimental groups (n = 6): Group Sham: Only laparotomy was performed. Group IS/REP: A 3- hour ischemia and 3-hour reperfusion were performed. Group IS/REP/NCER: The procedure included 3-hour ischemia, 3-hour reperfusion, and 20 µL (0.3 mmol/lit) of NCER 30 min before the cessation of ischemia. Significantly amended development of ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury was observed in animals treated with NCER compared to those of other groups (p = 0.001). Mean values of histomorphometric indices were significantly more improved than those observed for other groups (p = 0.001). Where testicular tissue is exposed to ischemia intraperitoneal administration of NCER could bear clinical benefits in diminishing ischemia-reperfusion injury.