Iran J Vet Surg, Print ISSN: 2008-3033, Online ISSN: 2676-6299

Document Type : Original Article


1 Endoscopic Surgery Training Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad Branch, Khorramabad, Iran.

5 Scientific Secretor of Iranian society of incontinency, Tehran, Iran.

6 Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Objectives: To evaluate if epidural administration of xylazine could decrease the effective dose of intravenous ketamine for maintenance of general anesthesia in laparoscopic procedures and assessment of related complications during anesthesia.
Design: Experimental Study.
Animals: 20 Female dogs with 21.0 ± 3.0 kg weight and 18.0 ± 1.2 months age.
Material and methods: Animals randomly divided into two groups (n=10). All dogs premedicated with acepromazine. Anesthesia induced by combination of ketamine and diazepam. In one group xylazine injected epidurally then all of them spayed by same laparoscopic method and repeated doses of ketamine for maintenance of anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary parameters such as SpO2 and ETCO2 during operation were recorded.
Results: There were no significant differences in weight and age between two groups. Mean of ketamine administration in group 1 was 640 mg and in group 2 (have epidural administration of xylazine) was 270 mg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Data analysis showed that epidural administration of xylazine, decreases the amount of ketamine needed to maintain anesthesia (P<0.05) with no significant difference in cardio-pulmonary parameters during laparoscopic operation. Epidural injection of Xylazine could be used as a concurrent medication in general anesthesia without complication. Analgesic effects of xylazine decreased the use of ketamine (P<0.05) by repeated dose based on intra operative pain reflex during anesthesia.


Main Subjects