Iran J Vet Surg, Print ISSN: 2008-3033, Online ISSN: 2676-6299

Document Type : Clinical Report


Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.



Chemical immobilization is a fundamental aspect of wildlife conservation and can be extremely detrimental if proper protocols are not administered. This report compares the duration of different stages of anesthesia in striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) immobilized with different combinations of ketamine (2.5-3 mg/kg)-medetomidine (0.035-0.04 mg/kg), ketamine (6-8 mg/kg)-xylazine (0.7-0.8 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg)-medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg)-midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) combinations. In total, 3 striped hyenas with different clinical conditions were anesthetized nine times. The time of induction, anesthesia, recovery, and physiological parameters were evaluated. Atipamezole (0.1-0.18 mg/kg), naltrexone (0.3 mg/kg), and flumazenil (0.003 mg/kg) were used to antagonize the effects of anesthetic drugs. Results revealed that both combinations of ketamine-medetomidine and butorphanol-medetomidine-midazolam were more effective and predictable in induction, anesthesia, and recovery phases as compared to ketamine-xylazine. Also, several sorts of adverse effects like vomiting, decreasing the percentage of Spo2, and reducing rectal temperature were observed while using the ketamine-xylazine combination. The physiological parameters haven’t been a noticeable difference as well as stages of chemical immobilization, in two combinations of ketamine-medetomidine and butorphanol-medetomidine-midazolam.


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