Iran J Vet Surg, Print ISSN: 2008-3033, Online ISSN: 2676-6299

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

3 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Abstract

A rat testis model was used to assess effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) clotrimazole microparticles on ischemia-reperfusion injury. Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were included and randomized into six investigational groups (n = 8): Group SHAM: Merely laparotomy was implemented. Group ISCHEMIA: Merely a 3-hour interval ischemia was done. Group I/R: A 3-hour interval ischemia, three-hour reperfusion for left testis, and one-week reperfusion for right testis were done and 20 µL normal saline was administered intraperitoneally (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Group I/R/PEG: The same as group I/R as well as 20 µl PEG (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Group I/R/CLTMZLMP: The same as group I/R and 20 µL (10 mg/kg) of clotrimazole microparticles (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Group I/R/PEG-CLTMZLMP: The same as group I/R and 20 µL PEG-based clotrimazole microparticles (IP) 30 min before termination of ischemia. Evaluations were based on analyses of biochemical assays. PEG-based clotrimazole microparticles improved enhanced antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). PEG-based clotrimazole microparticles could be helpful in minimizing ischemia-reperfusion injury in testicular tissue exposed to ischemia.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. McLachlan RI, de Krester DM. Male infertility: The case for continued research. Medical Journal of Australia. 2001; 174(3): 116-117.
  2. Srinath H. Acute scrotal pain. Australian Family Physician. 2013; 42(11): 790-792.
  3. Arap MA, Vicentini FC, Cocuzza M, Hallak J, Athayde K, Lucon AM, Arap S, Srougi M. Late hormonal levels, semen parameters, and presence of antisperm antibodies in patients treated for testicular torsion. Journal of Andrology. 2007; 28(4): 528-532.
  4. Parhizkar P, Mohammadi R, Shahrooz R, Mohammadi V. Effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat ovaries: Histological and biochemical assessments. Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma. 2019; 7(1): 35-40.
  5. Javanmardi S, Khordadmehr M. Benidipine reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury following testicular torsion/detorsion in rats. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery. 2017; 12(2): 21-30.
  6. Girotti AW. Lipid hydroperoxide generation, turnover, and effector action in biological systems. Journal of Lipid Research. 1998; 39(8): 1529-1542.
  7. Huang HY, Helzlsouer KJ, Appel LJ. The effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on oxidative DNA damage: results from a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 2000; 9(7): 647-652.
  8. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 1993; 90(17): 7915-7922.
  9. Lagreca E, Onesto V, Di Natale C, La Manna S, Netti PA, Vecchione R. Recent advances in the formulation of PLGA microparticles for controlled drug delivery. Progress in Biomaterials. 2020; 9(4): 153-174.
  10. Isaev NK, Stelmashook EV, Dirnagl U, Andreeva NA, Manuhova L, Vorobjev VS, Sharonova IN, Skrebitsky VG, Victorov IV, Katchanov J, Weih M, Zorov DB. Neuroprotective effects of the antifungal drug clotrimazole. Neuroscience. 2002; 113: 47–53.
  11. Alvarez J, Montero M, Garcia-Sancho J. High affinity inhibition of Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels by cytochrome P 450 inhibitors. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1992; 267: 11789–11793.
  12. Osmanağaoğlu MA, Kesim M, Yuluğ E, Menteşe A, Karahan SC. Ovarian-protective effects of clotrimazole on ovarian ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat ovarian-torsion model. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. 2012; 74(2): 125-130.
  13. Fouad EA, El-Badry M, Mahrous GM, Alanazi FK, Neau SH, Alsarra IA. The use of spray-drying to enhance celecoxib solubility. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 2011; 37(12): 1463-1472.
  14. Ethical standards for investigations of experimental pain in animals. The Committee for Research and Ethical Issues of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Pain. 1980; 9(2): 141-143.
  15. Esmaeilsani Z, Barati F, Mohammadi R, Shams-Esfandabadai N, Karimi I. Effects of curcumin nanoparticles on the tissue oxidative stress following testicular torsion and detorsion in rat model. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery. 2019; 14(2): 97-104.
  16. Cosentino MJ, Nishida M, Rabinowitz R, Cockett AT. Histopathology of prepubertal rat testes subjected to various durations of spermatic cord torsion. Journal of Andrology. 1986; 7(1): 23-31.
  17. Cummings JM, Boullier JA, Sekhon D, Bose K. Adult testicular torsion. Journal of Urology. 2002; 167(5): 2109-2110.
  18. Sessions AE, Rabinowitz R, Hulbert WC, Goldstein MM, Mevorach RA. Testicular torsion: Direction, degree, duration and disinformation. Journal of Urology. 2003; 169(2): 663-665.
  19. Aktaş BK, Bulut S, Bulut S, Baykam MM, Ozden C, Senes M, Yücel D, Memiş A. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on testicular damage in experimental testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pediatric Surgery International. 20100; 26(3): 293-298.
  20. Dokmeci D, Kanter M, Inan M, Aydogdu N, Basaran UN, Yalcin O, Turan FN. Protective effects of ibuprofen on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Archives of Toxicology. 2007; 81(9): 655-663.
  21. Lee JW, Kim JI, Lee YA, Lee DH, Song CS, Cho YJ, Han JS. Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2012; 47(4): 736-742.
  22. Barlas M, Hatiboglu C. The effect of nitric oxide in testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. International Urology and Nephrology. 2002; 34(1): 81-86.
  23. Uguralp S, Usta U, Mizrak B. Resveratrol may reduce apoptosis of rat testicular germ cells after experimental testicular torsion. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2005; 15(5): 333-336.
  24. Wang WW, Qiao SY, Li DF. Amino acids and gut function. Amino Acids. 2009; 37(1): 105-110.
  25. Vitaglione P, Ottanelli B, Milani S, Morisco F, Caporaso N, Fogliano V. Dietary trans-resveratrol bioavailability and effect on CCl4-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2009; 24(4): 618-622.
  26. Ünsal, A., Eroglu, M., Avci, A., Cimentepe, E., Guven, C., Derya Balbay, M., & Durak, I. Protective role of natural antioxidant supplementation on testicular tissue after testicular torsion and detorsion. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. 2006; 40(1): 17-22.
  27. Cuzzocrea S, Riley DP, Caputi AP, Salvemini D. Antioxidant therapy: a new pharmacological approach in shock, inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pharmacological Reviews. 2001; 53(1): 135-159.
  28. Turner TT, Bang HJ, Lysiak JL. The molecular pathology of experimental testicular torsion suggests adjunct therapy to surgical repair. Journal of Urology. 2004; 172(6 Part 2): 2574-2578.
  29. Jung JE, Kim GS, Chen H, Maier CM, Narasimhan P, Song YS, Niizuma K, Katsu M, Okami N, Yoshioka H, Sakata H. Reperfusion and neurovascular dysfunction in stroke: From basic mechanisms to potential strategies for neuroprotection. Molecular Neurobiology. 2010; 41: 172-179.
  30. Abdel-Gaber SA, Mohammed RK, Refaie MM. Mechanism mediating the protective effect of diacerein in ischemia-reperfusion-induced testicular injury in rats. Life Sciences. 2018; 209: 57-62.
  31. Arosio B, Gagliano N, Fusaro LM, Parmeggiani L, Tagliabue J, Galetti P, De Castri D, Moscheni C, Annoni G. Aloe‐emodin quinone pretreatment reduces acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2000; 87(5):229-233.
  32. Niki E, Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Noguchi N. Lipid peroxidation: Mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2005; 338(1): 668-676.
  33. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2006; 160(1): 1-40.
  34. Sharma H, Zhang X, Dwivedi C. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation. Ayu. 2010; 31(2): 134-140.