Iran J Vet Surg, Print ISSN: 2008-3033, Online ISSN: 2676-6299

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

3 Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.


Due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Scrophularia striata, it is used to heal wounds. Today, hydrogel based on alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer is mainly used due to its drug delivery properties and create of suitable conditions for wound healing. In this study, we tried to investigate the effect of hydrogel based on alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer containing Scrophularia striata extract nanoliposomes on wound healing in rat animal models. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to examine nanoliposome and hydrogel. 126 Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (18 rats/group). The rats were anesthetized and their dorsum shaved, a burn wound was created with a cylindrical copper at 100° C. Rats' wounds were treated with hydrogel Scrophularia striata extract and on the 5th, 10th, and 15th days, histopathological evaluation, macroscopic features and wound healing were evaluated and analyzed in different groups. The structure of nanoliposomes was uniform and the size was 80-110 nm. Also, the size of the hydrogel was 320 nm with nanometric size and spherical morphology. Histopathological evaluation, wound area and wound contraction confirmed that the treatment group had a significant difference from other groups and the effect was almost similar to that of zinc oxide. This study showed that alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer containing Scrophularia striata extract caused wound contraction, and reduced wound area, and can be used for wound healing.


Main Subjects

  1. Goldsmith LA. My organ is bigger than your organ. Archives of Dermatology. 1990; 126: 301-302.
  2. Reinke J, Sorg H. Wound repair and regeneration. European Surgical Research. 2012; 49: 35-43.
  3. Eming SA, Martin P, Tomic-Canic M. Wound repair and regeneration: mechanisms, signaling, and translation. Science Translational Medicine. 2014; 6: 265sr266-265sr266.
  4. Jeschke MG, Kamolz L-P, Sjöberg F, Wolf SE. Handbook of Burns. Vol 1; Springer, 2020.
  5. Butko Y, Tkachova O, Ulanova V, Müge Şahin Y, Levashova O, Tishakova T. Immune histochemical study of KI-67 level and ribonucleic acid in the process of healing of burn wounds after treatment with drugs containing dexpanthenol and ceramide. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry. 2019; 9(6): 4586-4590.
  6. Dong Y, Cui M, Qu J, Wang X, Kwon SH, Barrera J, Elvassore N, Gurtner GC. Conformable hyaluronic acid hydrogel delivers adipose-derived stem cells and promotes regeneration of burn injury. Acta Biomaterialia. 2020; 108: 56-66.
  7. Kaddoura I, Abu-Sittah G, Ibrahim A, Karamanoukian R, Papazian N. Burn injury: review of pathophysiology and therapeutic modalities in major burns. Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters. 2017; 30: 95.
  8. Elsner JJ, Shefy‐Peleg A, Zilberman M. Novel biodegradable composite wound dressings with controlled release of antibiotics: microstructure, mechanical and physical properties. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2010; 93: 425-435.
  9. Malekzadegan Y, Halaji M, Hasannejad-Bibalan M, Jalalifar S, Fathi J, Ebrahim-Saraie HS. Burden of Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile infection among patients in Western Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2019; 48: 1589.
  10. Hurler J, Berg OA, Skar M, Conradi AH, Johnsen PJ, Škalko‐Basnet N. Improved burns therapy: Liposomes‐in‐hydrogel delivery system for mupirocin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 101: 3906-3915.
  11. Vansofla AN, Nazarian S, Kordbache E, Fathi J. An IgG/IgY sandwich-ELISA for the detection of heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Gene Reports. 2021; 23: 101099.
  12. Hashemi B, Afkhami H, Khaledi M, Kiani M, Bialvaei AZ, Fathi J, Sarley H, Divsalar S, Ahanjan M. Frequency of metalo beta lactamase genes, bla IMP1, INT 1 in Acinetobacter baumanii isolated from burn patients north of Iran. Gene Reports. 2020; 21: 100800.
  13. Andrews E. Dressings in burn wound management. Pharmacy Magazine. 2018; 2018: 31-34.
  14. Aljghami ME, Saboor S, Amini-Nik S. Emerging innovative wound dressings. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2019; 47: 659-675.
  15. Goorani S, Zangeneh MM, Koohi MK, Seydi N, Zangeneh A, Souri N, Hosseini MS. Assessment of antioxidant and cutaneous wound healing effects of Falcaria vulgaris aqueous extract in Wistar male rats. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2019; 28: 435-445.
  16. Theri M, Nazarian S, Ebrahimi F, Fathi J. Immunization evaluation of type III secretion system recombinant antigens and Shiga like toxin binding subunit of E. coli O157: H7. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences. 2018; 20: 47-54.
  17. Shoohani B, Hemati AA, Taheri Moghadam M. Effects of Scrophularia striata extract on wound healing in rabbit. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 17: 9-16.
  18. Allahinejad E, Pourmajidian M, Jalilvand H, Mashayekhan A, Asgari M, Taati F. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Scrophularia striata against plant pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Forestry and Horticulture. 2016; 2: 35-39.
  19. Tanideh N, Haddadi MH, Rokni-Hosseini MH, Hossienzadeh M, Mehrabani D, Sayehmiri K, Koohi-Hossienabadi O. The healing effect of Scrophularia striata on experimental burn wounds infected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rat. World Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2015; 4: 16.
  20. Schinella G, Tournier H, Prieto J, De Buschiazzo PM, Rıos J. Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts. Life sciences. 2002; 70: 1023-1033.
  21. Ardeshiri-Lagimi A, Barzegar M, Rezaei-Tavirani M, Hashemi M, Heidari-Kashal S, Moghaddamnia S, Kalantari S. Effects of Scrophularia striata extract on human fibroblast cells. Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2009; 19.
  22. Benita S. Microencapsulation: methods and industrial applications: CRC Press, 2005.
  23. Arias JL. Nanotechnology and drug delivery, volume one: nanoplatforms in drug delivery: CRC Press, 2014.
  24. Parvane M, Nazarian S, Kordbacheh E, Fathi J, Minae ME, Ramezani MR. Evaluation of PLGA-encapsulated recombinant GroEL of typhi immune responses against enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology. 2022; 14: 294-302.
  25. Zhu J, Marchant RE. Design properties of hydrogel tissue-engineering scaffolds. Expert Review of Medical Devices. 2011; 8: 607-626.
  26. Kumar Giri T, Thakur D, Alexander A, Badwaik H, Krishna Tripathi D. Alginate based hydrogel as a potential biopolymeric carrier for drug delivery and cell delivery systems: present status and applications. Current Drug Delivery. 2012; 9: 539-555.
  27. Stoica AE, Chircov C, Grumezescu AM. Hydrogel dressings for the treatment of burn wounds: an up-to-date overview. Materials .2020; 13: 2853.
  28. Stubbe B, Mignon A, Declercq H, Van Vlierberghe S, Dubruel P. Development of gelatin‐alginate hydrogels for burn wound treatment. Macromolecular bioscience. 2019; 19: 1900123.
  29. Radhakrishnan A, Jose GM, Kurup M. PEG-penetrated chitosan–alginate co-polysaccharide-based partially and fully cross-linked hydrogels as ECM mimic for tissue engineering applications. Progress in Biomaterials. 2015; 4: 101-112.
  30. Lu H, Butler JA, Britten NS, Venkatraman PD, Rahatekar SS. Natural antimicrobial nano composite fibres manufactured from a combination of alginate and oregano essential oil. Nanomaterials .2021; 11: 2062.
  31. Gol MS, Khalili BN, Jafari M, Greenoak G. Determination of SPF and moisturizing effects of liposomal and conventional formulations of octyl methoxycinnamte as a sunscreen. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2007; 10(2): 99-110.
  32. Jøraholmen MW, Johannessen M, Gravningen K, Puolakkainen M, Acharya G, Basnet P, Škalko-Basnet N. Liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system enhances the potential of resveratrol in combating vaginal chlamydia infection. Pharmaceutics .2020; 12: 1203.
  33. Cai EZ, Ang CH, Raju A, Tan KB, Hing EC, Loo Y, Wong YC, Lee H, Lim J, Moochhala SM, Hauser CA. Creation of consistent burn wounds: a rat model. Archives of Plastic Surgery. 2014; 41: 317-324.
  34. Khoshmohabat H, Dalfardi B, Dehghanian A, Rasouli HR, Mortazavi SMJ, Paydar S. The effect of CoolClot hemostatic agent on skin wound healing in rats. Journal of Surgical Research. 2016; 200: 732-737.
  35. Shahraki M, Molaei MM, Kheirandish R, Mohammadi P, Sakhaee E. The effect of liposome nanocarrier containing Scrophularia striata Extract on burn wound healing in rats. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery. 2021; 16: 115-127.
  36. Jalilimanesh M, Azhdari M, Mirjalili A, Mozaffari MA, Hekmatimoghaddam S. The comparison of clinical and histopathological effects of topical psyllium (Plantago ovata) powder and silver sulfadiazine on second-degree burn wound healing in rats. World Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2021; 10: 96.
  37. Hazrati M, Mehrabani D, Japoni A, Montasery H, Azarpira N, Hamidian-Shirazi AR, Tanideh N. Effect of honey on healing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected burn wounds in rat. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2010; 37: 161-165.
  38. Cui M-D, Pan Z-H, Pan L-Q. Danggui Buxue extract-loaded liposomes in thermosensitive gel enhance in vivo dermal wound healing via activation of the VEGF/PI3K/Akt and TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017.
  39. Khaledi M, Bagheri N, Validi M, Zamanzad B, Afkhami H, Fathi J, Rahimian G, Gholipour A. Determination of CagA EPIYA motif in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with digestive disorder. Heliyon. 2020; 6: e04971.
  40. Ghashghaii A, Hashemnia M, Nikousefat Z, Zangeneh MM, Zangeneh A. Wound healing potential of methanolic extract of Scrophularia striata in rats. Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 23: 256-263.
  41. Xie J, Yang Z, Zhou C, Zhu J, Lee RJ, Teng L. Nanotechnology for the delivery of phytochemicals in cancer therapy. Biotechnology Advances. 2016; 34: 343-353.
  42. Oryan A, Naeini AT, Moshiri A, Mohammadalipour A, Tabandeh M. Modulation of cutaneous wound healing by silymarin in rats. Journal of Wound Care. 2012; 21: 457-464.
  43. Oryan A, T Naeini A, Nikahval B, Gorjia E. Effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on experimental cutaneous wound healing in rat. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2010; 80: 509-522.
  44. Stevenson PC, Simmonds MS, Sampson J, Houghton PJ, Grice P. Wound healing activity of acylated iridoid glycosides from Scrophularia nodosa. Phytotherapy Research. 2002; 16: 33-35.
  45. Kumari M, Eesha B, Amberkar M, Kumar N. Wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Crotalaria verrucosa in Wistar albino rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 3: 783-787.
  46. Azadmehr A, Afshari A, Baradaran B, Hajiaghaee R, Rezazadeh S, Monsef-Esfahani H. Suppression of nitric oxide production in activated murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro and ex vivo by Scrophularia striata ethanolic extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009; 124: 166-169.
  47. Haddadi R, Tamri P, Jooni FJ. In vitro wound healing activity of Scrophularia striata hydroalcoholic extract. South African Journal of Botany. 2019; 121: 505-509.