Document Type : Original Article
1 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3 Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
Babesias as the second common blood parasite in mammals after trypanosomes have aroused wide concern particularly due to having zoonotic potential. This study was implemented to scrutinize epididymal sperms characteristics and in vitro fertilizing (IVF) capacity as well as subsequent pre-implantation embryos developmental potential following experimental babesiosis (EB) induction by Babesia bigemina in mice. In this experimental study, twenty-four adult male mice were randomly categorized into four equal groups including untreated control, sham, splenectomy, and EB. Experimental babesiosis was induced in splenectomized mice through 2 ml intraperitoneal injection of an infected heparinized blood sample belonging to a cow with confirmed B. bigemina infection. All animals were euthanized after 5 days and epididymal sperms characteristics and IVF abilities along with early embryo development were analyzed following infection confirmation. Experimental babesiosis resulted in epididymal sperms quantity, quality, and IVF potential reduction as well as pre-implantation embryos developmental retardation compared to control, sham, and splenectomy groups. These findings revealed that B. bigemina infection can result in male subfertility and/or infertility in mice leading to pre-implantation embryos developmental arrest.
- Hunfeld KP, Hildebrandt A, Gray JS. Babesiosis: recent insights into an ancient disease. International Journal of Parasitology. 2008; 38(11): 1219-1237.
- Vannier E, Gewurz BE, Krause PJ. Human babesiosis. Infectious disease clinics of North America. 2008; 22(3):469-488.
- Wei SM, Yan ZZ, Zhou J. Protective effect of rutin on testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2011; 46(7): 1419-1424.
- Collard CD, Gelman S. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Anesthesiology. 2001; 94(6): 1133-1138.
- Jalali AS, Behfar M, Nourian A. Testicular torsion treatment as a male reproductive health concern. Journal of Trauma and Treatment. 2016; 5(3): 329.
- Hamoda AF, Radwan M, Rashed R, Amin A. Toxic effect of babesiosis in cattle and chemotherapeutic treatment in Egypt. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2014; 2(5): 91-96.
- Shariati, SH, Shalizar Jalali A, Esmaeilnejad B, Mazaheri-Khameneh R. Histological analysis of experimental babesiosis induced testiculopathy in mouse. Feyz. 2018: 22(1): 15-24.
- Shiadeh MN, Niyyati M, Fallahi S, Rostami A. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review. Parasitology Research. 2016; 115(2): 469-477.
- Martínez-García F, Regadera J, Mayer R, Sanchez S, Nistal M. Protozoan infections in the male genital tract. Journal of Urolology. 1996; 156: 340-349.
- Mahdivand N, Najafi G, Nejati V, Shalizar-Jalali A, Rahmani F. Royal jelly protects male rats from heat stress-induced reproductive failure. Andrologia. 2019; 51(3): e13213.
- Babaei M, Najafi G, Shalizar Jalali A, Behfar M. Effects of unilateral iatrogenic vas deferens trauma on fertility: an experimental in vitro fertilization mice model study. Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma. 2015; 3(4):122-127.
- Mrusek S, Vallbracht S, Ehl S. The impact of splenectomy on antiviral T cell memory in mice. International Immunology. 2005; 17(1): 27-33.
- Jalali AS, Najafi G, Hosseinchi M, Sedighnia A. Royal jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in stanozolol-treated mice. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2015; 13(1): 15-22.
- Najafi G, Farokhi F, Jalali AS, Akbarizadeh Z. Protection against cyclosporine-induced reprotoxicity by Satureja khuzestanica essential oil in male rats. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2016; 9(4): 548-557.
- Shiadeh MN, Niyyati M, Fallahi S, Rostami A. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review. Parasitolgy Research. 2016; 115(2): 469-477.
- Wei SM, Yan ZZ, Zhou J. Curcumin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat testis. Fertility and Sterility. 2009; 91(1): 271-277.
- Carden DL, Granger DN. Pathophysiology of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Pathology. 2000; 190: 255-266.
- Aitken RJ, Clarkson JS, Fishel S. Generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and human sperm function. Biology of Reproduction. 1989; 41(1): 183-197.
- Said TM, Agarwal A, Sharma RK, Thomas AJ Jr, Sikka SC. Impact of sperm morphology on DNA damage caused by oxidative stress induced by beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Fertility and Sterility. 2005; 83(1): 95-103.
- Nasr-Esfahani MH, Aitken RJ, Johnson MH. Hydrogen peroxide levels in mouse oocytes and early cleavage stage embryos developed in vitro or in vivo. Development. 1990; 109(2): 501-507.
- Amin YA, Noseer EA, Fouad SS, Ali RA, Mahmoud HYAH. Changes of reproductive indices of the testis due to Trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary bulls (Camelus dromedarius): semen picture, hormonal profile, histopathology, oxidative parameters, and hematobiochemical profile. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2020; 7(3): 537-545.
- Jalali AS, Esmaeilnejad B. Babesiosis as a male infertility risk factor. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Health. 2017: 1: e001.
- Shamaei-Tousi A, Collin O, Bergh A, Bergström S. Testicular damage by microcirculatory disruption and colonization of an immune-privileged site during Borrelia crocidurae Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2001; 193(9): 995-1004.
- Yarahmadi E, Shalizar-Jalali A, Jalallou N, Shaddel M. Testicular stereological and histological changes in an experimental murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medcal Sciences. 2019; 24(4): 86-94.