Document Type : Original Article
- Mu’azu Nuhu Bappah 1
- Nuhu Donga Chom 2
- Maruf Lawal 1
- Abdullaziz Abdullahi Bada 1
- Saidu Tanko Muhammad 3
1 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
2 Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Nigeria.
3 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between vertebral heart score and cardiac sphericity and to evaluate gender variation in both dimensions in apparently normal Nigeria indigenous dogs. Twelve (six males and six females) apparently normal Nigerian indigenous dogs were selected from dogs in Zaria, Nigeria. Radiographic evaluations involved left lateral views of the thoracic region of the dogs. The vertebral heart size was measured as the sum of the long-axis and short-axis at its greatest diameter then compared with the vertebra bones starting at T4. Cardiac sphericity was obtained by computing the ratio of the long-axis to the short-axis. The mean ± SD for vertebral heart score and cardiac sphericity index in apparently normal Nigerian indigenous dogs were 9.3 ± 0.44 and 0.77 ± 0.06 respectively. Pearson coefficient revealed a significant (p = 0.001) and very strong correlation (p = 0.81) between vertebral heart score and cardiac sphericity index in Nigerian indigenous dogs. There were no gender variations in both dimensions. This study revealed the existence of a strong relationship between vertebral heart score and cardiac sphericity index in dogs in apparently normal Nigerian indigenous dogs, and both dimensions demonstrated no gender variation. Vertebral heart score and cardiac sphericity index in apparently normal Nigerian indigenous dogs are expressed as ideal cardiac dimensions which are suggested to be useful quantitative and objective parameters in the diagnosis of cardiac disorders in dogs.
- Gugjoo MB, Hoque M, Saxena AC, Zama MMS, Amarpal A. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in dogs in thoracic radiographs. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 2013; 1(1): 1-4.
- Biasan RA, Birsan O, Vulpe V. The diagnostic value of cardio-thoracic ratio in detecting heart size changes in dog. Revista Romana de Medicina Veterinara, 2016; 26(3): 5-9.
- Nakayama H, Nakayama T, Hamlin RL. Correlation of cardiac enlargement as assessed by vertebral heart size and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings in dogs with evolving cardiomegaly due to rapid ventricular pacing. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2001; 1(3): 217–221.
- Buchanan JW, Bucheler J. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1995; 206(2): 194-799.
- Buchanan JW. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in radiographs. Veterinary clinics of North America: Small animal practice, 2000; 30(2): 379-393.
- Bavegems V, Caelenberg AV, Duchateau L, Sys SU, Bree HV, Rick AD. Vertebral heart size ranges specific for whippets. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, 2005; 46(5): 400–403.
- Sleeper MM, Buchanan JW. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in growing puppies. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2001; 219(1): 57-59.
- Lamb CR, Tyler M, Boswood A, Skelly BJ, Cain M. Assesment of the value of the vertebral heart scale in the radiographic diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs. Veterinary Record, 2000; 146(24): 687–690.
- Lord PF, Hansson K, Carnabuci C, Kvart C, Haggstrom J. Radiographic heart size and its rate of increase as tests for onset of congestive heart failure in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with mitral valve regurgitation. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2011; 25(6): 1312–1319.
- Gugjoo MB, Hoque M, Saxena AC, Zama MMS, Yatoo MI. Pericardial effusion in dogs: diagnostic features of radiography, electrocardiography and echocardiography. International Journal of Current Research, 2013; 5(12): 4233-4237.
- Birsan O, Biasan A, Mocanu D, Vulpe V. Cardio-thoracic ratio evaluation of cardiac sihlouette compared with the vertebral heart scale in cats. Bulletin UASVM Veterinary Medicine, 2016; 73(1): 36-37.
- Kanemoto I, Taguchi D, Mihara K, Kawase K, Sato K, Iwata K, Iwanaga K. Long-term survival of two dogs after mitral valve plasty. Veterinary Science Development, 2017; 7(1): 51-54.
- Azargoun R, Avizeh R, Ghadiri A, Imani Rastabi H, Pourmahdi M. Vertebral heart score: a useful parameter in determination of resuscitation endpoint in dogs with hemorrhagic shock. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2019; 13(3): 243-250.
- Capuzzi J. Evaluating a new radiographic tool for canine heart disease diagnosis. Available at: https://www.dvm360.com/view/evaluating-a-new-radiographic-tool-for-canine-heart-disease-diagnosis. Accessed Oct 15, 2020
- Guglielmini C, Diana A, Santarelli G, Torbidone A, Di Tommaso M, Baron Toaldo M, Cipone M. Accuracy of radiographic vertebral heart score and sphericity index in the detection of pericardial effusion in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2012; 241(8): 1048-1055.
- Carlsson C, Haggstrom J, Eriksson A, Jarvinen AK, Kvart C, Lord P. Size and shape of right heart chambers in mitral valve regurgitation in small‐breed dogs. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 2009; 23(5): 1007-1013.
- Mostafa AA, Peper KE, Berry CR. Use of cardiac sphericity index and manubrium heart scores to assess radiographic cardiac silhouettes in large-and small-breed dogs with and without cardiac disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2020; 256(8): 288-896.
- Zahabpour F, Rajabioun M, Sedigh HS, Azizzadeh M. Radiographic evaluation of normal heart size in native dog of Khorasan province sing VHS method. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, 2017; 11(2): 39-42.
- Azevedo GM, Pessoa GT, Moura LS, Sousa FCA, Rodrigues RPS, Sanches MP, Fontenele RD, Barbosa MAPS, Neves WC, Sousa JM, Alves FR. Comparative study of the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in healthy Poodle breed dogs. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016; 44(1): 1387.
- Bodh D, Hoque M, Saxena AC, Gugjoo MB, Bist D, Chaudhary JK. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs. Veterinary World, 2016; 9(4): 371-376.
- Neagu AG, Tudor N, Vlagioiu C. Measuring the heart size of dogs with VHS method. Veterinary Medicine, 2015; 61(1): 92-94.
- Lamb CR, Wilkeley H, Boswood A, Pfeiffer DU. Use of breed-specific ranges for the vertebral heart scale as an aid to the radiographic diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs. Veterinary Record, 2001; 148(23): 707–711.
- Jepsen-Grant K, Pollard RE, Johnson LR. Vertebral heart scores in eight dog breeds. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, 2013; 54(1): 3-8.
- Beardow AW, Buchanan JW. Chronic mitral valve disease in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels: 95 cases (1987–1991). Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 1993; 203(7):1023–1029.
- Sleeper MM, Roland R, Drobatz KJ. Use of the vertebral heart scale for differentiation of cardiac and noncardiac causes of respiratory distress in cats: 67 cases (2002–2003). Journal American Veterinary Medical Associ8ation, 2013; 242(3): 366–371.