Document Type : Original Article
- Farzad Davari 1
- Omid Zehtabvar 1
- Mohammad Molazem 2
- Zahra Tootian 1
- Mohammad Soltani 3
- Mahdokht Khanamooie-Ashi 1
1 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Radiology and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Poultry Diseases Research and Diagnostics, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
Objective- The intention of this research is studying the full topographic characteristics of the lower respiratory tract consist of lungs, bronchi, and trachea in Caspian pond tortoise, especially those features that are applicable in clinical examination, and their proximity to other organs.
Design- Experimental study.
Animals- Six female adult Caspian Pont turtles (Mauremys Caspica)
Procedures- Siemens Somatom spirit Dual Slice CT scan machine has been used. The samples were fixed in ventral recumbency to take CT-scan images. In each sample, the CT-scan was done in both fixed limb and neck and extended form. Some morphometric parameters like the volume of the coelomic cavity, right and left lungs, and others were measured through the Syngo MMWP VE40A software.
Results- Trachea passing a short distance in the midline of the neck, and deviated to the left; then, it entered to the coelomic cavity. The tracheal bifurcation site was movable and move to caudal parts with neck flexion. The entrance site of the bronchi to the lungs was fixed. With the consideration of coelomic cavity volume and various parts of that in the neck extended position, the lungs consist of 42.12% of the coelomic cavity and 22.58% in the flexed neck position.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance- According to the observations, we can say the flexion of the neck leads to some alterations in the tracheal bifurcation site and locating posteriorly to the lungs hilum. As a result, the way of the bronchus changes to inter the lungs. The branches of bronchus in these turtles also are like other reptiles, and it's not similar to a bronchial tree and it contains just limited small branches. The CT-scan is applicable for alive animals, so this is one of the best choices for anatomical studies in animals who are in danger of extinction.
- Alinezhad AH, Zand S, Rezvani Y, Shahbazi Kordlar Z, Arefi S, Zehtabvar O. Chelonians: In Anatomy of Reptiles, Noorbakhsh, Tehran, Iran. 2019; 87-122.
- McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J. Diagnostic imaging techniques, In: Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell, 2004; 187–238.
- O’Malley B. Reptiles, In: Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of Exotic Species. Saunders, 2005; 41-56.
- Valente A L, Cuenca, R, Parga, ML, Lavín S, Franch J, Marco I. Cervical and coelomic radiologic features of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006; 70(4): 285–290.
- Valente, AL, Cuenca R, Zamora M, Parga ML, Lavin S, Alegre F, Marco I. Computed tomography of the vertebral column and coelomic structures in the normal loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). Journal of Veterinary Science, 2007; 174:362–370.
- Saber ASM, Kamal BM. Computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of the respiratory organs of the Egyptian tortoise (Testudo kleinmanni). Journal of Veterinary Anatomy, 2010; 3:1-15.
- Mans C, Drees R, Sladky KK, Hatt JM, Kircher PR. Effects of body position and extension of the neck and extremities on lung volume measured via computed tomography in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2013; 243(8):1190-1196.
- Lim CK, Kirberger RM, Lane EP, Elliott DL. Computed tomography imaging of a leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis pardalis) with confirmed pulmonary fibrosis: a case report, Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2013; 55(1):35.
- Zehtabvar O, Vajhi AR, Tootian Z, Masoudifard M, Davudypoor S. Investigating the echocardiography and heart anatomy of immature beluga (Huso huso). Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, 2019; 14(1), 44-53.
- Zehtabvar O, Vajhi AR, Tootian Z, Masoudifard M, Sadeghinezhad J, Davudypoor S. Echocardiography and histology evaluation of the heart in the immature (2.5 years old) beluga. Journal of Veterinary Research, 2018; 72(4), 467-473.
- Zehtabvar O., Vajhi AR, Tootian Z, Rostami A, Shojaei B. Computed tomographic anatomy and topography of the non-respiratory organs of coelomic cavity of European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis). Journal of Veterinary Research, 2015; 70(4), 411-418.
- Zehtabvar O, Tootian Z, Vajhi AR, Shojaei B, Rostami A, Davudypoor, S, Sadeghinezhad J, Ghaffari H, Memarian I. Computed tomographic anatomy and topography of the lower respiratory system of the European pond turtle (Emys Orbicularis). Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, 2014; 9(2), 9-16.
- Ahranjani BA, Shojaei B, Tootian Z, Masoudifard M, Rostami A. Anatomical, radiographical and computed tomographic study of the limbs skeleton of the Euphrates soft shell turtle (Rafetus euphraticus). Veterinary Research Forum, 2016; 7(2): 117–124.
- Anderson SC. Synopsis of the turtles, crocodiles and amphibians of Iran. Proceeding of the California Academy of Sciences, 1972; 41(22): 501-528.
- Carpenter JW. Reptiles, In: Exotic Animal Formulary, Saunders. 4th ed. Philadelphia, USA. 2012; 103-104.
- Krautwald Junghanns ME, Pees M, Reese S. Repriles, In: Diagnostic Imaging of Exotic Pets, Schlütersche, 2011; 360-363.
- Schwarz T, Saunders J, Chelonians, In: Veterinary Computed Tomography. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011; 533-544.
- Mitchell MA. Chelonians, In: Manual of Exotic Pet Practice. Saunders, 2009; 207-249.
- Murray MJ, Anatomy, physiology, and behavior, In: Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier, 2006; 124–134.