Document Type : Original Article

Author

Department of Clinical Sciences, FAculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch, Mahabad, Iran.

10.30500/ivsa.2022.365592.1325

Abstract

The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices adult Kordi sheep. Twelve healthy adult Kordi sheep were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animals. In such a way that Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured. Images were stored and measured offline. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intraobserver inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Kordi sheep were established. As documented in other species, all sheep PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side and reference values are reported for healthy adult Kordi sheep. PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in sheep. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Nasirian A, Seyyed Javadi SMM, Seyyed Javadi AMA, Abbasi M, Eghbali M. Atlas of sheep and goat breed of Iran and the world. In: Breeds of sheep. Nouri M, Pashmi M. Eds. 2010; 130-132. (In Persian).
  2. Schiller NB, Shah PM, Crawford M, DeMaria A, Devereux R, Feigenbaum H, Gutgesell H, Reichek N, Sahn D,
    Schnittger I, Silverman NH. Recommendations for quantitation of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 1989, 2(5):358–367.
  3. Reef VB, McGuirk SM. Diseases of the cardiovascular system. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd Edn. Edited by BP S. St Louis: Mosby. 2002; 447-468.
  4. Blissitt KJ, Bonagura JD. Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography in normal horses. Equine Veterinary Journal. 1995; 27(Suppl 19): 38-46.
  5. Kirberger RM, Berg JS. Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of intracardiac blood flow in normal sheep. Research in Veterinary Science. 1993; 55: 189-194.
  6. Yuill CD, O’Grady MR. Doppler-derived velocity of blood flow across the cardiac valves in the normal dog. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 1991; 55: 185-192.
  7. Anderson B. Echocardiography the normal examination and echocardiographic measurements, Blackwell Publishers. 2002.
  8. Demaria AN, Wisenbaugh TW, Smith MD, Harrison MR, Berk MR. Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic dysfunction. Circulation, 1991; 84: I288–I295.
  9. Leroux AA, Farnir F, Moonen ML, Sandersen CF, Deleuze S, Amory H. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goat. BMC Veterinary Research. 2012; 8: 190.
  10. Sadi F, Alizadeh S. Study of cardiac parameters by pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography in normal healthy Markhoz goat. Iranian Journal of Veteinary Surgery. 2018; 13(2): 1-7.
  11. Sadi F, Measurement of cardiac parameters by echocardiography in normal healthy Najdi goat. Journal of Alternative Veterinary Medicine. 2021; 4: 10.