Document Type : Original Article
Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser, acupuncture, and liquid stitch on surgical wound healing in a rat model. 40 male Wistar rats (200-300 gr) were used in this study. Under general anesthesia (ketamine/xylazine), surgical preparation on both sides of the spine was performed and a skin incision was made on each side (1.5 cm). 40 wounds were closed by 3-0 polypropylene suture material in a simple interrupted pattern and half with liquid stitch. 80 wounds were divided into eight groups of ten: in groups A and B wounds were closed with polypropylene suture material and liquid stitch with no other treatment. In groups C and D wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received acupuncture. In groups E and F, wounds closed with suture materials, and liquid stitch, respectively, received a low-level laser. In groups G and H wounds were closed with suture materials and liquid stitch, respectively, and received both laser and acupuncture. Treatments were started the day after surgery and continued until day 10. All the groups were subdivided into two equal groups which were sacrificed on days five and ten after surgery. Skin samples were taken for histopathological evaluations (H & E, Masson’s trichrome). The results showed that the quality of wound healing in groups C, D, E, F, G, and H, were statistically superior to the groups A, and B. Groups G and H which received both treatments, had better results than groups C, D, E, and F, which received only one of the treatments. Low-level laser treatment showed better results in comparison with acupuncture treatment. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. It can be concluded that both acupuncture and low-level laser has pro-healing properties on surgical wounds.
- Abramov Y, Golden B, Sullivan M, Botros SM, Miller JJR, Alshahrour A, Goldberg RP, Sand PK. Histologic characterization of vaginal vs. abdominal surgical wound healing in a rabbit model. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 2007; 15: 80.
- Avci P, Gupta A, Sadasivam M, Vecchio D, Pam Z, Pam N, Hamblin MR. Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. 2013; 32: 41–52.
- Woodruff LD, Bounkeo JM, Brannon WM, Dawes Jr KS, Barham CD, Waddel DL, Enwemeka CS. The efficacy of laser therapy in wound repair: a meta-analysis of the literature. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery. 2004; 22(3): 241-247.
- Melo VA, Anjos DCS, Albuquerque Júnior R, Melo DB, Carvalho FUR. Effect of low level laser on sutured wound healing in rats. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira. 2001; 26(2): 129-134.
- Pugliese LS, Medrado AP, Reis SR, Andrade ZA. The influence of lo-level Laser therapy on biomodulation of collagen and elastic fibers. Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira. 2003; 4: 307-313.
- Singer AJ, Thode HC Jr. A review of the literature on octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. The American Journal of Surgery. 2004; 187: 238-248.
- Tseng YC, Hyon SH, Ikada Y, Shimizu Y, Tamura K, Hitomi S. In vivo evaluation of 2-cyanoacrylates as surgical adhesives. Journal of Applied Biomaterials. 1990; 1: 111-119.
- Hulea CI, Cristina RT. Acupuncture as a Therapeutic Tool in Health Disorders in Animals. Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 2012; 45(2).
- Sultana J, Molla MR, Kamal M, Shahidullah M, Begum F, Bashar MA. Histological differences in wound healing in maxillofacial region in patients with or without risk factors. Bangladesh Journal of Pathology. 2009; 24: 3‑8.
- Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays on wound healing. The American Journal of Surgery. 1971; 122: 532–535.
- de MeloI VA, dos Anjos DCS, Júnior RA, Melo DB, Carvalho FUR. Effect of low level laser on sutured wound healing in rats1. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira. 26(2).
- Saarto EE, Hielm-Björkman AK, Hette K, Kuusela E, Brandão CVS, Luna SPL. Effect of a single acupuncture treatment on surgical wound healing in dogs: a randomized, single blinded, controlled pilot study. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 52: 57.
- Setiya S, Halli R, Shah A, Chhabaria G, Singh T. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of tissue glue and sutures after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars – A prospective controlled clinical study. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology. 2014; 27.
- Oladega AA, James O, Adeyemo WL. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive or silk suture for closure of surgical wound following removal of an impacted mandibular third molar: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 2019; 47(1): 93-98.
- Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays onwound healing. The American Journal of Surgery. 1971; 122: 532–535.
- Boschi ES, Leite CE, Saciura VC, Caberlon E, Lunardelli A,Bitencourt S, Melo DA, Oliveira JR. Anti-inflammatory effectsof low-level laser therapy (660 nm) in the early phase incarrageenan-induced pleurisy in rat. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2008; 40: 500–508.
- de Sousa AP, Paraguassú GM, Silveira NT, de Souza J, CangussúMC, de Santos JN, Pinheiro AL. Laser and LEDphototherapies on angiogenesis. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2013; 28: 981–987.
- Maegawa Y, Itoh T, Hosokawa T, Yaegashi K, Nishi M. Effects of near-infrared low-level laser irradiation on microcirculation. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2000; 27: 427-437.
- Altman S. Techniques and instrumentation. In: Schoen M, ed. Veterinary Acupuncture -ancient art to modern medicine. Mosby Inc., Missouri,USA; 2001; 95-112.
- Scognamillo Szabô MVR, Bechara GH, Cunha FQ. Involvement of Corticoidand Cytokines in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Acupuncture on Carrageenan-Induced Peritonitis in Rats. Journal of Chinese Society Traditional Veterinary Science. 2004; 2004: 84-96.
- Cho ZH, Son YD, Han JY, Wong EK, Kang CK, Kim KY, Kim HK, Lee BY,Yim YK, Kim KH. fMRI neurophysiological evidence of acupuncturemechanisms. Medical Acupuncture. 2002; 14: 16-22.
- Gregory CR. Wound Healing and Influencing Factors. In: Flower D, Williams JM, eds. Manual of Canineand Feline Wound Management and Reconstruction. UK: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 1999; 13-23.
- Theoret CL. The Pathophysiology of Wound Repair. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice. 2005; 21: 1-13.
- Martin P. Wound healing—aiming for perfect skin regeneration. 1997; 276: 75–81.
- Haroon ZA, Raleigh JA, Greenberg CS, Dewhirst MW. Early wound healing exhibits cytokine surge without evidence ofhypoxia. Annals of Surgery. 2000; 231: 137–147.
- Medrado AR, Pugliese LS, Reis SR, Andrade ZA. Influenceof lowlevel laser therapy on wound healing and its biological actionupon myofibroblasts. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2003; 32: 239–244.
- Posten W, Wrone DA, Dover JS, Arndt KA, Silapunt S, Alam M. Low-level laser therapy for wound healing: mechanism andefficacy. Dermatologic Surgery. 31: 334–340.
- Demidova-Rice TN, Salomatina EV, Yaroslavsky AN, Herman IM,Hamblin MR (2007) Low-level light stimulates excisional woundhealing in mice. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2005; 39: 706-715.
- Demir H, Balay H, Kirnap M. A comparative study of theeffects of electrical stimulation and laser treatment on experimentalwound healing in rats. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2004; 41: 147–154.
- Lubart R, Friedmann H, Peled I, Grossman N. Light effect onfibroblast proliferation. Laser Therapies. 1993; 5: 55–57.
- Prabhu V, Rao S, Chandra S, Kumar P, Rao L, Guddattu V, Satyamoorthy K, Mahato KK. Spectroscopic and histologicalevaluation of wound healing progression following low levellaser therapy (LLLT). Journal of Biophotonics. 2012; 5: 168–184.
- Walker MD, Rumpf S, Baxter GD, Hirst DG, Lowe AS. Effect of low-intensity laser irradiation (660 nm) on a radiationimpairedwound-healing model in murine skin. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2000; 26: 41–47.
- Yasukawa A, Ohrui H, Koyama Y, Nagai M, Takakuda K. The effect of low reactive-level laser therapy (LLLT) with heliumneonlaser on operative wound healing in a ratmodel. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2007; 69: 799–806.