Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

3 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

Abstract

Due to the prevalence of burns and the necessity of effective treatment with low and optimal complications, in the present study, the efficacy of olive leaf extract ointment was evaluated as a therapeutic substance for burn wounds. Moreover, the healing effects of olive leaf extract ointment were compared to Silver Sulfadiazine. 36 rats were used in the present study. To create a burn wound, a rectangular piece of copper (2 x 1 cm) was put in 94º C water for 20 minutes and then placed on the rats’ skin for 30 seconds. Then, the rats were randomly divided into three groups; 1) Sham group: Rats did not receive any treatment and just the wound was washed with distilled water. 2) Control group: In this group rats were treated with silver sulfadiazine. 3) OLE group: 10% olive leave extract ointment was employed to treat the wounds. Wounds were macroscopically examined during days 4, 7, 14, and 21. Histopathological assessments were performed on days 4, 7, 14, and 21 in various studied groups. Results revealed that wound contraction was higher in the OLE group compared to the sham and control groups and histopathological examinations indicated that OLE improved wound healing in comparison to the sham group.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Biggs LC, Kim CS, Miroshnikova YA, Wickström SA. Mechanical forces in the skin: roles in tissue architecture, stability, and function. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2020; 140(2): 284-290.
  2. D'Orazio J, Jarrett S, Amaro-Ortiz A, Scott T. UV radiation and the skin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6): 12222-12248.
  3. Romanovsky AA. Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation. Acta Physiologica. 2014; 210(3): 498-507.
  4. Ng KW, Lau WM. Skin deep: the basics of human skin structure and drug penetration. In: Percutaneous penetration enhancers chemical methods in penetration enhancement. Springer, 2015; 3-11.
  5. Mohammadi AA, Amini M, Mehrabani D, Kiani Z, Seddigh A. A survey on 30 months electrical burns in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Burn Hospital. Burns. 2008; 34(1): 111-113.
  6. Akbari H, Fatemi MJ, Iranpour M, Khodarahmi A, Baghaee M, Pedram MS, Saleh S, Araghi S. The healing effect of nettle extract on second degree burn wounds. World Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2015; 4(1): 23.
  7. Schwartz S, Brunicardi F, Andersen D, Billiar TR, Dunn DL, Hunter JG. Thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal. Schwartz's principles of surgery. McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub Division. 2010: 1374-1388.
  8. Hasan DJ, Eriby DQ, Hammoodi S. Causes of mortality in burns, prospective study. International Journal of Surgery Science. 2019; 3(3): 261-264.
  9. Hosseinimehr SJ, Khorasani G, Azadbakht M, Zamani P, Ghasemi M, Ahmadi A. Effect of aloe cream versus silver sulfadiazine for healing burn wounds in rats. Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica. 2010; 18(1).
  10. Amini M, Kherad M, Mehrabani D, Azarpira N, Panjehshahin MR, Tanideh N. Effect of Plantago major on burn wound healing in rat. Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2010; 37(1): 53-56.
  11. Mehrabani D, Farjam M, Geramizadeh B, Tanideh N, Amini M, Panjehshahin MR. The healing effect of curcumin on burn wounds in rat. World Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2015; 4(1): 29-35.
  12. Yuniarti WM, Lukiswanto BS. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats. Veterinary World. 2017; 10(7): 808.
  13. Panahi Y. A herbal cream consisting of Aloe vera, Lavandula stoechas, and Pelargonium roseum as an alternative for silver sulfadiazine in burn management. Asian Biomed. 2012; 6(02): 273.
  14. Flamminii F, Di Mattia CD, Difonzo G, Neri L, Faieta M, Caponio F, Pittia P. From by‐product to food ingredient: evaluation of compositional and technological properties of olive‐leaf phenolic extracts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2019; 99(14): 6620-6627.
  15. Baycın D, Altıok E, Ülkü S, Bayraktar O. Adsorption of olive leaf (Olea europaea) antioxidants on silk fibroin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007; 55(4): 1227-1236.
  16. Baghal Asghari F, Nikaeen M, Mirhendi H. Rapid monitoring of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital water systems: a key priority in prevention of nosocomial infection. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 2013; 343(1): 77-81.
  17. Khalatbary A, Zarrinjoei GR. Anti-inflammatory effect of oleuropein in experimental rat spinal cord trauma. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2012; 14(4): 229.
  18. Sarbishegi M, Gorgich EAC, Khajavi O, Komeili G, Salimi S. The neuroprotective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of olive (Olea europaea) leaf on rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease in rat. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2018; 33(1): 79-88.
  19. Raisi A, Farjanikish G, Salahi P. Comparing healing effects of olive leaf extract ointment and dermaheal ointment on cutaneous wound in diabetic rats. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2019; 29(173): 11-21.
  20. Akbari G, Shahbazfar A, Kianifard D, Rezaei H, Shokrollahi S, Mohebi D. Microscopic study of the healing effects of the mixture of olive oil and lime water on the second degree burning in rats. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 2017; 24(6): 169-177.
  21. Geerligs M, Van Breemen L, Peters G, Ackermans P, Baaijens F, Oomens C. In vitro indentation to determine the mechanical properties of epidermis. Journal of Biomechanics. 2011; 44(6): 1176-1181.
  22. Priya KS, Gnanamani A, Radhakrishnan N, Babu M. Healing potential of Datura alba on burn wounds in albino rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002; 83(3): 193-199.
  23. Cho Y-W, Cho Y-N, Chung S-H, Yoo G, Ko SW. Water-soluble chitin as a wound healing accelerator. Biomaterials. 1999; 20(22): 2139-2145.
  24. Nourbar E, Mirazi N, Yari S, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Nasri H. Effect of hydroethanolic extract of Nigella sativa on skin wound healing process in diabetic male rats. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2019; 10.
  25. Benavente-Garcıa O, Castillo J, Lorente J, Ortuño AD, Del Rio JA. Antioxidant activity of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea leaves. Food Chemistry. 2000; 68(4): 457-462.
  26. Huang SS, Zheng RL. Rosmarinic acid inhibits angiogenesis and its mechanism of action in vitro. Cancer Letters. 2006; 239(2): 271-280.
  27. Qabaha K, Al-Rimawi F, Qasem A, Naser SA. Oleuropein is responsible for the major anti-inflammatory effects of olive leaf extract. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2018; 21(3): 302-305.
  28. Erdogan I, Bayraktar O, Uslu ME, Tuncel Ö. Wound healing effects of various fractions of olive leaf extract (OLE) on mouse fibroblasts. Romanian Biotechnological Letters. 2018; 23(6): 14217-14228.
  29. Ghaneialvar H, Arjmand S, Sahebghadam Lotfi A, Soleimani M, Mashhadi Abbas F. Influence of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells on the effective inflammatory factors of diabetic wound healing in animal models. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2017; 27(148): 12-21.
  30. Mirza RE, Koh TJ. Contributions of cell subsets to cytokine production during normal and impaired wound healing. Cytokine. 2015; 71(2): 409-412.
  31. Sanaei N, Mohammadi R, Raisi A, Zarei L. Extract of Berula angustifolia (l.) mertens enhances wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice. 2018; 30(8): 242-248.
  32. Parihar A, Parihar MS, Milner S, Bhat S. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative mobilization in burn injury. Burns. 2008; 34(1): 6-17.
  33. Andreadou I, Iliodromitis EK, Mikros E, Constantinou M, Agalias A, Magiatis P, Skaltsounis AL, Kamber E, Tsantili-Kakoulidou A, Kremastinos DT. The olive constituent oleuropein exhibits anti-ischemic, antioxidative, and hypolipidemic effects in anesthetized rabbits. The Journal of Nutrition. 2006; 136(8): 2213-2219.
  34. Al-basher G, Al-otibi F. Biological activity of olive leaf extract and regulation of tissue transglutaminase expression in diabetic wound healing. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2018; 14(7): 963-972.
  35. Mehraein F, Sarbishegi M, Aslani A. Evaluation of effect of oleuropein on skin wound healing in aged male BALB/c mice. Cell Journal (Yakhteh). 2014; 16(1): 25.
  36. Fehri B, Aiache J-M, Mrad S, Korbi S, Lamaison JL. Olea europaea: stimulant, anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory effects. Bollettino Chimico-Farmaceutico. 1996; 135(1): 42-49.
  37. Moustafa A, Atiba A. The effectiveness of a mixture of honey, beeswax and olive oil in treatment of canine deep second-degree burn. Global Veterinaria. 2015; 14(2): 244-250.