Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tabriz, Iran.

4 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Objective- The loss of bone fragments, often due to trauma, infection, mass loss, or even complete bone regeneration after complicated fractures, is one of the constant challenges in medicine and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to fabricate and use a nanocomposite scaffold in segmental bone healing in rabbits.
Design- Experimental Study
Animals- Forty adult male New Zealand male rabbits
Procedures- The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. On femur of each rabbit a bilateral 6 mm diameter defect was created. In the first group (control), no substance was used, in the second group, hydroxyapatite, in the third group, nanocomposite tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and in fourth group, autograft was used to fill the defect. Bone specimens were harvested for histopathological evaluations on days 15 and 60 for evaluation of four indices of union, spongiosa, cortex and bone marrow.
Results- The results of using nanocomposite tricalcium phosphate in comparison with other groups were significantly different in all cases.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance- It could be admitted that nanocomposite tri-calcium phosphate scaffold had a positive effect on the healing process and showed satisfactory bone strength, therefore, it could be widely used in orthopedic surgery as well as tissue engineering.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Gentile P, Chiono V, Carmagnola I, Hatton PV. An overview of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. International journal of Molecular Science, 2014; 15(3): 3640-3659.

 Agarwal R, García AJ.Biomaterial strategies for engineering implants for enhanced osseointegration and bone repair. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2015; 94: 53-62.

Roseti L, Parisi V, Petretta M, Cavallo C, Desando G, Bartolotti I, Grigolo B. Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and new perspectives. Materials Science and Engineering C: Materials for Biological Applications, 2017; 78: 1246-1262.

Kim KJ, Choi MS, Shim JH, Rhie JW. Bone morphogenetic protein 2-conjugated silica particles enhanced early osteogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells on the polycaprolactone scaffold. Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, 2019; 16(4): 395-403.

Gu Y, Zhang J, Zhang X, Liang G, Xu T, Niu W. Three-dimensional printed Mg-doped β-TCP bone tissue engineering scaffolds: effects of magnesium ion concentration on osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro. Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, 2019; 16(4): 415-429.

Goodarzi H, Hashemi-Najafabadi S, Baheiraei N, Bagheri F. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite scaffolds (collagen/β-TCP/SrO) for bone tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, 2019; 16(3): 237-251.

 Hokmabad VR, Davaran S, Aghazadeh M, Alizadeh E, Salehi R, Ramazani A. A comparison of the effects of silica and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, 2018; 15(6): 735-750.

Eliaz N, Metoki N. Calcium phosphate bioceramics: a review of their history, structure, properties, coating technologies and biomedical applications. Materials, 2017; 10: 334-339.

Vallet-Regí M, Ruiz-Hernández E. Bioceramics: from bone regeneration to cancer nanomedicine. Advanced Materials, 2011; 23(44): 5177-5218.

Luo Y, Zhai D, Huan Z, Zhu H, Xia L, Chang J, Wu C. Three-dimensional printing of hollow-struts-packed bioceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2015; 7(43): 24377-24383.

Burton TP, Callanan A. A Non-woven path: electrospun poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for kidney tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, 2018; 15(3): 301-310.

Shafiei-Sarvestani Z, Oryan A, Bigham AS, Meimandi-Parizi A. The effect of hydroxyapatite-hPRP, and coral-hPRP on bone healing in rabbits: radiological, biomechanical, macroscopic and histopathologic evaluation. International Journal of Surgery, 2012; 10(2): 96-101.

Chevallay B, Herbage D. Collagen-based biomaterials as 3D scaffold for cell cultures: applications for tissue engineering and gene therapy. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 2000; 38: 211–218.

Wolf K, Alexander S, Schacht V, Coussens LM, von Andrian UH, van Rheenen J, Deryugina E, Friedl P. Collagen-based cell migration models in vitro and in vivo. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 2009; 20: 931–941.

Ng AM, Saim AB, Tan KK, Tan GH, Mokhtar SA, Rose IM, Othman F, Idrus RB. Comparison of bioengineered human bone construct from four sources of osteogenic cells. Journal of Orthopaedic Science, 2005; 10: 192–199.

 Tan KK, Tan GH, Shamsul BS, Chua KH, Ng MH, Ruszymah BH, Aminuddin BS, Loqman MY. Bone graft substitute hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with tissue engineered autologous osteoprogenitor cells in spinal fusion: early result in sheep as a model. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 2005; 60: 53–58.

Braddock M, Houston P, Campbell C, Ashcroft P. Born again bone: tissue engineering for bone repair. News in Physiological Sciences, 2001; 16(5): 208–213.

Perka C, Schultz O, Spitzer RS, Lindenhayn K, Burmester GR, Sittinger M. Segmental bone repair by tissue-engineered periosteal cell transplants with bioresorbable fleece and fibrin scaffolds in rabbits. Biomaterials, 2000; 21: 1145–1153.

Gugala Z, Gogolewski S. Healing of critical-size segmental bone defects in the sheep tibiae using bioresorbable polylactide membranes .Injury, 2002; 33: 71–76.

Nair L S, Laurencin C T. Nanofibers and nanoparticles for orthopaedic surgery applications. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume), 2008; 90(Suppl 1): 128–131.

Nair LS, Bhattacharyya S, Laurencin CT. Development of novel tissue engineering scaffolds via electrospinning. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 2004; 4(5): 659–668.

Christenson EM, Anseth KS, van den Beucken JJ, Chan CK, Ercan B, Jansen JA, Laurencin CT, Li WJ, Murugan R, Nair LS, Ramakrishna S, Tuan RS, Webster TJ, Mikos AG.. Nanobiomaterial applications in orthopedics. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2007; 25(1): 11–22

Woo KM, Chen VJ, Ma PX. Nano-fibrous scaffolding architecture selectively enhances protein adsorption contributing to cell attachment. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2003; 67(2): 531–537.

Pelled G, Tai K, Sheyn D, Zilberman Y, Kumbar S, Nair LS, Laurencin CT, Gazit D, Ortiz C. Structural and nanoindentation studies of stem cell-based tissue-engineered bone. Journal of Biomechanics, 2007, 40(2): 399–411.

Webster TJ, Ergun C, Doremus RH, Siegel RW, Bizios R. Enhanced functions of osteoblasts on nanophase ceramics. Biomaterials, 2000; 21(17): 1803–1810.

Webster TJ, Ergun C, Doremus RH, Siegel RW, Bizios R. Enhanced osteoclastlike cell functions on nanophase ceramics. Biomaterials, 2001; 22(11): 1327–1333.

Huang Z-M, Zhang Y-Z, Kotaki M, RamakrishnaA S. Review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 2003; 63(15): 2223-2253.

 Ma P X, Zhang R. Synthetic nano-scale fibrous extracellular matrix. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 1999; 46; 160-172.

Whitesides G M, Grzybowski B. Self-assembly at all scales. Science, 2002; 295(5564): 2418–2421.

Zeleny J. The electrical discharge from liquid points, and a hydrostatic method of measuring the electric intensity at their surfaces. Physical Review, 1914, 3(2):  69–91.

Formhals A. Process and apparatus for preparing artificial threads. US Patent, 1975504, 1934.

Kumbar SG, James R, Nukavarapu SP, Laurencin CT. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues. Biomedical Materials, 2008; 3(3): 034002.

 Li D, Wang Y, Xia Y. Electrospinning of polymeric and ceramic nanofibers as uniaxially aligned arrays. Nano Letters, 2003; 3(8): 1167-1171.

 Patel S, Kurpinski K, Quigley R, Gao H, Hsiao BS, Poo MM, Li S. Bioactive nanofibers: synergistic effects of nanotopography and chemical signaling on cell guidance. Nano Letters, 2007; 7(7): 2122–2128.

Ma Z, Kotaki M, Inai R, Ramakrishna S. Potential of nanofiber matrix as tissue-engineering scaffolds. Tissue Engineering, 2005; 11(1–2):101–109.

Kumbar S G, Nukavarapu S P, James R. Recent patents on electrospun biomedical nanostructures: an overview. Recent Patents on Biomedical Engineering. 2008; 1(1): 68-78.