Case Description- A nine years old New Zealand white female diabetic rabbit (blood glucose level~300 mg/dl) was presented to the Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex OPD, Kolkata, India with a history of chronic weight loss along with inappetence, polyuria, haematuria from last 10 days. Feeding history revealed that the animal was maintained with a mixed diet that is rich in calcium (Ca).
Clinical Findings- Manual examination revealed moderate pain near the caudal region and a hard mass was felt near the bladder region and a straight lateral radiograph of the abdomen revealed the presence of a radiodense cystolith.
Treatment and Outcome- Cystotomy was done and the rabbit was recovered uneventfully. The analysis of the stone revealed calcium carbonate as the major content.
Clinical Relevance- The present article describes successful surgical management of urolith in a rabbit and confers ample evidence that a high calcium diet, peculiar Ca metabolism along with more carbohydrate predisposing to diabetes may setup urolithiasis. The present study also emphasizes the fact that diminished Na+-K+-ATPase activity in diabetes can play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of peripheral vascular and neural complications leading to the development of bladder dysfunction, hence diminished urine flow in diabetic rabbits results in the development of nidus formation and thereby further accumulation of calcium salts in and around nidus leads to the formation of urolithiasis.