Document Type: Original Article
Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Objective- Comparative evaluation of standing and lateral recumbent restraint positions for rumenotomy based on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) concentrations of Kano-Brown goats (KBGs).
Design- Experimental study
Animals- Eighteen KBGs of both sexes diagnosed of rumen foreign body impaction (RFBI), were allocated to groups A, B and D. Six other KBGs free of RFBI were assigned to group C as control.
Procedures- Groups A and B were restrained in lateral recumbency position while group D in a fabricated mobile small ruminant surgical chute (MSRSC) in a standing fashion. Serum samples stored at -20 ℃ until ELISA, were obtained pre-rumenotomy (Pre) and post-rumenotomy, at 0, 5, 24, 48 and 72 hours, and subsequently at weeks 1, 2, and 3. Group C had no surgery while A, B and D had rumen skin clamp fixation, stay suture rumenotomy and mobile small ruminant surgical chute rumenotomy, respectively.
Results- The post-rumenotomy mean concentrations of TGF-β for groups A, B and D at 0 hour (81.97 ± 24.12, 71.26 ± 10.28 and 58.51 ± 6.44 ng/L, respectively) were higher than the mean pre-rumenotomy values (38.34 ± 3.66, 41.31 ± 4.90 and 44.91 ±4.10 ng/L, respectively) but were not significantly different (P > 0.05). As the mean TGF-β concentration in the males of the different experimental groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05), the females of group B had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mean concentrations than those of group D and C females at 48 hours post-rumenotomy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance- Lateral recumbency restraint position rumenotomy was associated with more severe post-surgical stress than standing restraint based on role switching of the TGF-β in this study. This suggests comparative advantage of standing recumbency restraint rumenotomy over the conventional lateral recumbency restraints position in goats.
- Annatte AI. Farm animals. National agricultural extension and research liaison services ABU, Zaria, Naerls Press, 2000; 1-32.
- Hendrickson DA, Baird ANN. Turner and Mcilwraith’s techniques in large animal surgery. 4th ed. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
- Niehaus AJ. Rumenotomy. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 2008; 24: 341-347.
- Ames NK. Rumenotomy, Fistulation, Cannulation, and Pericardiotomy in Cattle. In: Noordsy’s food animal surgery. 5th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., USA, 2014; 105-117.
- Geehan AM, Amel OB, Shnain H. Comparative study of two rumenotomy techniques in goats. Surgery Journal, 2006; 1: 9-13.
- Dehghani SN, Ghadrdani AM. Bovine rumenotomy: comparison of four surgical techniques. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 1995; 36: 693-697.
- Burton D, Grainne N, George H. Endocrine and metabolic response to surgery. Continuing Education in Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain, 2004; 4: 144-147.
- Lisowska B. The stress response and its functional implications in the immune response after surgery in patients with chronic inflammation undergoing arthroplasty. Recent Advances in Arthroplasty, 2012.
- Hanson PG, Peter G, Hanson MD. The Joy of Stress. Stress for success. Pan MacMillan, London, UK, 1986.
- Manorama S. Stress response and anaesthesia. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 2003; 47: 427-434.
- Hellyer PW, Robertson SA, Fails AD. Pain and Its Management. In: Lumb and Jones’ veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JCA. Grimm K, eds. 4th ed. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Iowa, USA, 2007; 31-52.
- Alberto B, Enrico G, Alessandro G, Enrica B, Anna F, Roberto DA, Gioachino C. Analgesia and endocrine surgical stress: effect of two analgesia protocols on cortisol and prolactin levels during abdominal aortic aneurysm endovascular repair. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 2011; 32: 526-529.
- Opal SM, DePalo VA. Anti-inflammatory cytokines. Chest, 2000; 117: 1162–1172.
- Cavaillon J-M. Pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines: myth or reality. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2001; 47: 1-8.
- Dinarello CA. Interleukin-1, interleukin-1 receptors and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. International Review in Immunology, 1998; 16: 457–499.
- Do Cke WD, Randow F, Syrbe U. Monocyte deactivation in septic patients: restoration by interferon gamma treatment. Nature Medicine, 1997; 3: 678–681.
- Litterio JJ, Roberts AB. TGF-b: A critical modulator of immune cell function. Journal of Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 1997; 84: 244–250.
- Norgaard P, Hougaard S, Spang-Thomsen M. Transforming growth factor b and cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 1995; 21: 367–403.
- Kingsley DM. The TGF-b superfamily: New members, new receptors and new genetic tests of function in different organisms. Genes Development, 1994; 8: 133–146.
- Mahdavian DB, van der Veer WM, van Egmond M, Niessen FB, Beelen RH. Macrophages in skin injury and repair. Immunobiology, 2011; 216: 753–762.
- Dhama K, Mahendran M, Chauhan RS, Tomar S. Cytokines: Their functional roles and prospective applications in veterinary practice: A review. Journal of Immunology and Immunopathology, 2008; 10: 79-89.
- Reikeras O, Borgen P, Reseland JE, Lyngstadaas SP. Changes in serum cytokines in response to musculoskeletal surgical trauma. BMC Research, 2014; 7: 1-5.
- Schneemilch CE, Bank U. Release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during different anaesthesia procedures. Anaesthesiol Reanim, 2001; 26: 4-10.
- Serini G, Gabbiana G. Modulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in fibroblasts by transforming growth factor-beta isoforms: An in vivo and in vitro study. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 1996; 4: 278–287.
- Lisowska B. The stress response and its functional implications in the immune response after surgery in patients with chronic inflammation undergoing arthroplasty. Recent Advances in Arthroplasty, 2012; 1-34.
- Slatter D. Wound Repair and Specific Tissue Injury Response. In: Text book of small animal surgery, Holsgood G, ed. 3rd ed. Saunders, Elsevier, USA, 2003.
- Asadikaram G, Asiabanha M, Sayadi A, Jafarzadeh A, Hassanshahi G. Impact of opium on the serum levels of tgf-β in diabetic, addicted and addicted-diabetic rats. Iranian Journal of Immunology, 2010; 7: 186-192.
- Friedman E, Gold LI, Klimstra D, Zeng ZS, Winawer S, Cohen A. High levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 correlate with disease progression in human colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biormarker and Prevention, 1995; 4: 549-554.
- Yokoyama Y, Schwacha MG, Samy TSA, Bland KI, Chaudry IH. Gender dimorphism in immune responses following trauma and hemorrhage. Immunologic Research Volume, 2002; 26: 63-76.
- Pakyari M, Farrokhi A, Maharlooei MK, Ghahary A. critical role of transforming growth factor beta in different phases of wound healing. Advances in Wound Care, 2012; 2: 215-224.
- Behm B, Babilas P, Landthaler M, Schreml S. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in wound healing. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2012; 26: 1-9.